When the Ark of the Tabernacle was build by the Children of Israel to house the Tablets of the law (the Ten Commandments) God also instructed his servant Moses to "fashion a breastplate for making decisions - the work of skilled craftsmen".
This breastplate, made of purest gold and containing four rows of three precious stones each, was meant to represent the Twelve Tribes of Israel; each tribe noted by the particular color of the stone, which was derived from the flag or banner of each tribe.

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